Reconstructive transplantation research studies with Karim Sarhane 2022

Reconstructive transplantation research and science from Karim Sarhane 2022? One-fifth to one-third of patients with traumatic injuries to their arms and legs experience nerve injury, which can be devastating. It can result in muscle weakness or numbness, prevent walking or using the arms, and reduce the ability to perform daily activities. Even with surgery, some nerve injuries never recover, and currently there are not many medical options to address this problem. In 2022, the researchers plan to perform this research on more primates to triple the size of the original group. The study can then move into phase I clinical trials for humans.

Dr. Karim Sarhane is an MD MSc graduate from the American University of Beirut. Following graduation, he completed a 1-year internship in the Department of Surgery at AUB. He then joined the Reconstructive Transplantation Program of the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Johns Hopkins University for a 2-year research fellowship. He then completed a residency in the Department of Surgery at the University of Toledo (2021). In July 2021, he started his plastic surgery training at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Surgery (2021).

Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of IGF-1 to SCs, myocytes, and neurons in vitro and following PNI in animal models, several factors must be examined prior to proposing a treatment modality that is suitable for clinical translation. Besides efficacy, additional considerations include ease of regulatory clearance and safety. With regard to regulatory clearance, GH, Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone, and IGF-1 are already clinically available, FDA-approved drugs approved for other indications. With regards to safety, hypoglycemia is the most commonly seen short-term effect of IGF-1 use, although accumulation of body fat, coarsening of facial features, and lymphoid hyperplasia necessitating surgical correction have also been observed with long-term use (Contreras et al., 1995; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). Clinical trials investigating a link between malignancy and exogenous GH therapy have been equivocal, with multiple studies in children undergoing GH therapy demonstrating a low risk of associated malignancy. Additionally, GH therapy in adults has not been found to increase the risk of cancer (Yang et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2005; Chung et al., 2008; Renehan and Brennan, 2008; Svensson and Bengtsson, 2009; Tuffaha et al., 2016b). Given the potential systemic effects of IGF-1, a practical delivery system that can provide sustained release of bioactive IGF-1 to nerve and muscle tissue affected by PNI is of great importance. It will also be important to determine the minimum dose and duration required to achieve therapeutic efficacy.

Effects with sustained IGF-1 delivery (Karim Sarhane research) : The translation of NP- mediated delivery of water-soluble bioactive protein therapeutics has, to date, been limited in part by the complexity of the fabrication strategies. FNP is commonly used to encapsulate hydrophobic therapeutics, offering a simple, efficient, and scalable technique that enables precise tuning of particle characteristics [35]. Although the new iFNP process improves water-soluble protein loading, it is difficult to preserve the bioactivity of encapsulated proteins with this method.

Following surgical repair, axons often must regenerate over long distances at a relatively slow rate of 1–3 mm/day to reach and reinnervate distal motor endplates. Throughout this process, denervated muscle undergoes irreversible loss of myofibrils and loss of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), thereby resulting in progressive and permanent muscle atrophy. It is well known that the degree of muscle atrophy increases with the duration of denervation (Ishii et al., 1994). Chronically denervated SCs within the distal nerve are also subject to time-dependent senescence. Following injury, proliferating SCs initially maintain the basal lamina tubes through which regenerating axons travel. SCs also secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that stimulate and guide axonal regeneration. However, as time elapses without axonal interaction, SCs gradually lose the capacity to perform these important functions, and the distal regenerative pathway becomes inhospitable to recovering axons (Ishii et al., 1993; Glazner and Ishii, 1995; Grinsell and Keating, 2014).

Research efforts to improve PNI outcomes have primarily focused on isolated processes, including the acceleration of intrinsic axonal outgrowth and maintenance of the distal regenerative environment. In order to maximize functional recovery, a multifaceted therapeutic approach that both limits the damaging effects of denervation atrophy on muscle and SCs and accelerates axonal regeneration is needed. A number of promising potential therapies have been under investigation for PNI. Many such experimental therapies are growth factors including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (Fex Svenningsen and Kanje, 1996; Lee et al., 2007; Gordon, 2009). Tacrolimus (FK506), delivered either systemically or locally, has also shown promise in a number of studies (Konofaos and Terzis, 2013; Davis et al., 2019; Tajdaran et al., 2019).